Tips on Good Food Safety Practices in your Freezer
The following is information obtained from the USDA Food Safety website. For more details on Freezer Food Safety you can visit their website at www.fsis.usda.gov
What Can You Freeze?
You can freeze almost any food. Some exceptions are canned food or eggs in shells. However, once the food (such as a ham) is out of the can, you may freeze it.
Being able to freeze food and being pleased with the quality after defrosting are two different things. Some foods simply don’t freeze well. Examples are mayonnaise, cream sauce and lettuce. Raw meat and poultry maintain their quality longer than their cooked counterparts because moisture is lost during cooking.
Is Frozen Food Safe?
Food stored constantly at 0 °F will always be safe. Only the quality suffers with lengthy freezer storage.
Freshness & Quality
Freshness and quality at the time of freezing affect the condition of frozen foods. If frozen at peak quality, foods emerge tasting better than foods frozen near the end of their useful life. So freeze items you won’t use quickly sooner rather than later. Store all foods at 0° F or lower to retain vitamin content, color, flavor and texture.
Proper packaging helps maintain quality and prevent "freezer burn." It is safe to freeze meat or poultry directly in its supermarket wrapping but this type of wrap is permeable to air. Unless you will be using the food in a month or two, overwrap these packages as you would any food for long-term storage using airtight heavy-duty foil, (freezer) plastic wrap or freezer paper, or place the package inside a (freezer) plastic bag. Use these materials or airtight freezer containers to repackage family packs into smaller amounts. It is not necessary to rinse meat and poultry before freezing. Freeze unopened vacuum packages as is. If you notice that a package has accidentally been torn or has opened while food is in the freezer, the food is still safe to use; merely overwrap or rewrap it.
Freezer burn does not make food unsafe, merely dry in spots. It appears as grayish-brown leathery spots and is caused by air reaching the surface of the food. Cut freezer-burned portions away either before or after cooking the food. Heavily freezer-burned foods may have to be discarded for quality reasons.
Freeze food as fast as possible to maintain its quality. Rapid freezing prevents undesirable large ice crystals from forming throughout the product because the molecules don’t have time to take their positions in the characteristic six-sided snowflake. Slow freezing creates large, disruptive ice crystals. During thawing, they damage the cells and dissolve emulsions. This causes meat to "drip"–lose juiciness. Emulsions such as mayonnaise or cream will separate and appear curdled.
Ideally, a food 2-inches thick should freeze completely in about 2 hours. If your home freezer has a "quick-freeze" shelf, use it. Never stack packages to be frozen. Instead, spread them out in one layer on various shelves, stacking them only after frozen solid.
Refrigerator – Freezers
If a refrigerator freezing compartment can’t maintain zero degrees or if the door is opened frequently, use it for short-term food storage. Eat those foods as soon as possible for best quality. Use a free-standing freezer set at 0° F or below for long-term storage of frozen foods. Keep a thermometer in your freezing compartment or freezer to check the temperature. This is important if you experience power-out or mechanical problems.
Never defrost foods in a garage, basement, car, dishwasher or plastic garbage bag; out on the kitchen counter, outdoors or on the porch. These methods can leave your foods unsafe to eat.
There are three safe ways to defrost food: in the refrigerator, in cold water, or in the microwave. It’s best to plan ahead for slow, safe thawing in the refrigerator. Small items may defrost overnight; most foods require a day or two. And large items like turkeys may take longer, approximately one day for each 5 pounds of weight.
For faster defrosting, place food in a leak proof plastic bag and immerse it in cold water. (If the bag leaks, bacteria from the air or surrounding environment could be introduced into the food. Tissues can also absorb water like a sponge, resulting in a watery product.) Check the water frequently to be sure it stays cold. Change the water every 30 minutes. After thawing, cook immediately.
When microwave-defrosting food, plan to cook it immediately after thawing because some areas of the food may become warm and begin to cook during microwaving.
Once food is thawed in the refrigerator, it is safe to refreeze it without cooking, although there may be a loss of quality due to the moisture lost through defrosting. After cooking raw foods which were previously frozen, it is safe to freeze the cooked foods. If previously cooked foods are thawed in the refrigerator, you may refreeze the unused portion.
If you purchase previously frozen meat, poultry or fish at a retail store, you can refreeze if it has been handled properly.
Cooking Frozen Foods
Raw or cooked meat, poultry or casseroles can be cooked or reheated from the frozen state. However, it will take approximately one and a half times the usual cooking time for food which has been thawed. Remember to discard any wrapping or absorbent paper from meat or poultry.
Look for the USDA or state mark of inspection
The inspection mark on the packaging tells you the product was prepared in a USDA or State-inspected plant under controlled conditions. Follow the package directions for thawing, reheating, and storing.
Power Outage in Freezer
If there is a power outage, the freezer fails, or if the freezer door has been left ajar by mistake, the food may still be safe to use. As long as a freezer with its door ajar is continuing to cool, the foods should stay safe overnight. If a repairman is on the way or it appears the power will be on soon, just don’t open the freezer door.
A freezer full of food will usually keep about 2 days if the door is kept shut; a half-full freezer will last about a day. The freezing compartment in a refrigerator may not keep foods frozen as long. If the freezer is not full, quickly group packages together so they will retain the cold more effectively. Separate meat and poultry items from other foods so if they begin to thaw, their juices won’t drip onto other foods.
When the power is off, you may want to put dry ice, block ice, or bags of ice in the freezer or transfer foods to a friend’s freezer until power is restored. Use an appliance thermometer to monitor the temperature.
When it is freezing outside and there is snow on the ground, it seems like a good place to keep food until the power comes on; however, frozen food can thaw if it is exposed to the sun’s rays even when the temperature is very cold. Refrigerated food may become too warm and food borne bacteria could grow. The outside temperature could vary hour by hour and the temperature outside will not protect refrigerated and frozen food. Additionally, perishable items could be exposed to unsanitary conditions or to animals. Animals may harbor bacteria or disease; never consume food that has come in contact with an animal.
To determine the safety of foods when the power goes on, check their condition and temperature. If food is partly frozen, still has ice crystals, or is as cold as if it were in a refrigerator (40 °F), it is safe to refreeze or use. It’s not necessary to cook raw foods before refreezing. Discard foods that have been warmer than 40 °F for more than 2 hours. Discard any foods that have been contaminated by raw meat juices. Dispose of soft or melted ice cream for quality’s sake.
Freezer Storage Chart (0 °F)
Note: Freezer storage is for quality only. Frozen foods remain safe indefinitely.
- Bacon and Sausage - 1 to 2 months
- Casseroles - 2 to 3 months
- Egg whites or egg substitutes - 12 months
- Frozen Dinners and Entrees - 3 to 4 months
- Gravy, meat or poultry - 2 to 3 months
- Ham, Hotdogs and Lunchmeats - 1 to 2 months
- Meat, uncooked roasts - 4 to 12 months
- Meat, uncooked steaks or chops - 4 to 12 months
- Meat, uncooked ground - 3 to 4 months
- Meat, cooked - 2 to 3 months
- Poultry, uncooked whole - 12 months
- Poultry, uncooked parts - 9 months
- Poultry, uncooked giblets - 3 to 4 months
- Poultry, cooked - 4 months
- Soups and Stews - 2 to 3 months
- Wild game, uncooked - 8 to 12 months
Other useful tips on freezing & thawing foods
Label all foods with recipe name, date, number of servings, thawing and reheating direction and “use-by” date.
Do not overload your freezer with new foods; add no more than 2 to 3 pounds of food per cubit foot of freezer capacity so air can circulate for proper freezing.
Seal containers with as little air as possible unless freezing liquid or semi liquid foods that expand when frozen. Leave a 1 ½ inch space below the rim to allow for expansion
When freezing casserole dishes or containers with empty space between the food and lid, fill “dead space” with crumpled wax paper.
Store food in 1-gallon freezer bags; press out all the air and seal tightly so bags can be stacked on top of each other.
Not all freezer containers are created equal: use specially designed freezer bags, airtight containers, and aluminum foil to maintain the quality of your foods. Poorly wrapped foods risk damage from freezer burn – a loss of moister which affects both taste and texture – and can absorb or transfer smells from other foods in the freezer.
Do not freeze tomato-based or other acidic foods in aluminum baking pans, or cover them with aluminum foil.
The following are foods that do not freeze well
- Block of cheese – becomes crumbly
- Cottage cheese – becomes mushy
- Custard – becomes watery
- Egg white (cooked) – becomes rubbery
- Egg yolk – becomes gummy
- Gravy – fats can separate; whisk during reheating
- Green onion – becomes limp and watery
- Lettuce – becomes limp
- Mayonnaise – can separate
- Milk – can separate
- Radish – texture deteriorates
- Raw potato – texture and color deteriorate
- Raw tomato – becomes limp and watery
- Sour Cream – can separate
- Whole Egg – can become gummy
- Yogurt – can separate